Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi

Book review by Carice Witte

In this paper, SIGNAL Founder/Executive Director Carice Witte reviews “Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi,” an amalgam of thirteen essays about current Chinese foreign policy. As China continues to rapidly grow and reexamine its international priorities, its global strategy is constantly evolving. For this reason alone, its is difficult to come by time appropriate, extensive analyses of China’s foreign policy. This represents a catch-22, as analysts must constantly update their knowledge to provide an accurate assessment of China. With this in mind, Ms. Witte discusses each section in the context of China’s present affairs. Published in 2017, some of the arguments presented in“Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi,”are already outdated; nonetheless, it provides useful commentary on a consequential topic.

Dealing with an Ambiguous World Order, from China to the United States
By: Aryeh Tepper, Academic Advisor to SIGNAL’s Israel Studies Programs in China


Israel’s relationship with China is usually viewed from a bilateral perspective that focuses on economic issues. Sometimes, America’s view of the relationship is added to the picture.

The relationship between Israel and China exists, however, in a global context, and the character of that context needs to be clearly understood if Israel wants to preserve the widest possible range of options and avoid undesirable choices in its relations with both Washington and Beijing.

The problem with understanding this greater context is that while everyone knows that we’re living in a post-Cold War era, not much else is clear about the present international order. Francis Fukayama argued in his influential 1992 book, The End of History, that a consensus regarding the legitimacy of liberal democracy was emerging around the globe thanks to liberal democracy’s capacity to satisfy fundamental human desires for both comfort and recognition. Fukayama, in other words, thought that the post-Cold War order would be liberal-democratic.

Fukayama’s teacher, the late Samuel Huntington, argued against his student in his 1996 book, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, that the post-Cold War era would see conflict break out along civilizational lines.

India’s Israel relations, the Middle East and China
By: Dr. Shalom Salomon Wald

International politics are in flux. Power relations between the main actors on the international scene are changing. Grasping and exploiting these changes in a timely fashion is an essential prerequisite of successful statesmanship. This paper addresses India’s movement into the Middle East, as seen in the broader framework of India’s changing position among the world’s great powers. The most salient international changes include the new tensions between the United States and both Russia and China, the growing assertiveness of China, the relative decline of Europe and the turmoil in the Middle East and wider Muslim world. Less noticed but perhaps no less important is a perceptible change in India’s view of its own future since Prime Minister Modi, the head of the center-right Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power in 2014. His was called a “landmark victory”.

A Striking Resemblance: Deep Parallels in Israeli and Chinese History
By: Aryeh Tepper

In recent years, Israel has invested heavily in developing the economic, diplomatic and academic dimensions of its relationship with China. The investment has paid off, as Israel-China relations are strengthening while China rises on the world stage.

Moving forward, it is in Jerusalem’s interest to deepen the connection with Beijing. However, it’s legitimate to wonder if the cultural gaps and different histories render such an interest impractical. At first glance, the cultural and historical barriers present serious obstacles to establishing a more profound connection between Israel and China.

This initial view is, however, incorrect. There are profound cultural and historical parallels between the Chinese and Israeli experiences that, if thoughtfully cultivated over time, can be used to deepen the connection between the Israeli and Chinese peoples and to buttress the Israel-China relationship.

Consider the following: only the Chinese and Israelis can claim to be inheritors of traditions that date back to the ancient world but have endured through the present. There are other ancient peoples in the world, for instance, the Persians. But in the case of Persia, the introduction of Islam caused a fundamental disruption within Persian history. Persian culture before Islam, and Persian culture after Islam, are different in kind.

The Rising Strategic Value Of Global Technology Assets And Its Impact On Sino-Israel Relations
By: Ariella Berger

Chinese investment in Israeli technology in 2016 increased ten-fold over the previous year. With ten bilateral agreements recently signed between the two nations valued at $25 billion, China – Israel relations appear to be moving along a steady economic trajectory. This growth, however, is based primarily on China’s need for Israel’s innovative technology. This begs the question, are Sino-Israel relations vulnerable to a fall in the value of global technology asset? In this SIGNAL Perspective, Ariella Berger, draws on the metaphor of the perfect storm to contend that four converging factors: the rising relevance of Artificial Intelligence as a critical asset that accelerates technology convergence; the high demand for technology assets in America being spurred by Trump’s plan to resuscitate US manufacturing; The relevance of technology for China’s Belt and Road Initiative; and the consequences of the closing technological gap between advanced economies suggest that Sino-Israel relations are likely to remain prosperous as the strategic value of technology, in the mid-term, appears set to increase.

The Impact of Culture and History on China’s International Relations
By: Carice Witte and Aryeh Tepper

Is China an up-and-coming aggressor determined to govern the global order? That seems to be the conventional view among some Western pundits and politicians. From snubbing former U.S. President Obama upon his arrival at last year’s G20 summit, to not participating in the arbitration of the South China Sea territorial dispute, China appears intent on throwing its weight around as it rises to prominence on the international stage.

While it’s true that the People’s Republic of China jealously protects its national interests, the conventional view is problematic because it lacks the broad historical-cultural perspective that is necessary for evaluating Chinese behavior. As Israel continues to strengthen its connection to the Middle Kingdom, it’s important that Israel’s leaders know how to assess Chinese behavior independently of the Western conventional wisdom. The 2016 South China Sea ruling is helpful for illustrating what the Western perspective misses.

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SIGNAL Perspectives are written by experts on a range of issues within the China-Israel-Middle East space