Publications
Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi

Book review by Carice Witte

In this paper, SIGNAL Founder/Executive Director Carice Witte reviews “Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi,” an amalgam of thirteen essays about current Chinese foreign policy. As China continues to rapidly grow and reexamine its international priorities, its global strategy is constantly evolving. For this reason alone, its is difficult to come by time appropriate, extensive analyses of China’s foreign policy. This represents a catch-22, as analysts must constantly update their knowledge to provide an accurate assessment of China. With this in mind, Ms. Witte discusses each section in the context of China’s present affairs. Published in 2017, some of the arguments presented in“Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi,”are already outdated; nonetheless, it provides useful commentary on a consequential topic.

Steps toward Warmer Egypt-Israel Relations


As the international community progresses towards a more interconnected world order, Xi Jinping Thought stresses the need for a paradigm shift in the way countries approach state-to-state relations. According to President Xi, estrangement should be replaced with exchange, clashes with mutual learning, and superiority with coexistence. In accordance with this notion, Israel endeavors to redefine its relationship with the Arab World.

In this SIGNAL Note, international scholar from Egypt, Haisam Hassanein explores Israel’s historically complex relationship with Egypt. While Israel and Egypt have had official diplomatic relations since a peace agreement was struck in 1979, full normalization has never been attained. In fact, Egyptian political officials and journalists have been ridiculed for interacting with Israelis. Elements of the Egyptian media, with the backing of fundamentalist Islamic groups have historically portrayed Jews in a racist light on national television there. In spite of this, Israel remains an essential security and trading partner for Egypt, helping it overcome fundamental challenges to its job market and economy.

Dealing with an Ambiguous World Order, from China to the United States


Israel’s relationship with China is usually viewed from a bilateral perspective that focuses on economic issues. Sometimes, America’s view of the relationship is added to the picture.

The relationship between Israel and China exists, however, in a global context, and the character of that context needs to be clearly understood if Israel wants to preserve the widest possible range of options and avoid undesirable choices in its relations with both Washington and Beijing.

The problem with understanding this greater context is that while everyone knows that we’re living in a post-Cold War era, not much else is clear about the present international order. Francis Fukayama argued in his influential 1992 book, The End of History, that a consensus regarding the legitimacy of liberal democracy was emerging around the globe thanks to liberal democracy’s capacity to satisfy fundamental human desires for both comfort and recognition. Fukayama, in other words, thought that the post-Cold War order would be liberal-democratic.

Fukayama’s teacher, the late Samuel Huntington, argued against his student in his 1996 book, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, that the post-Cold War era would see conflict break out along civilizational lines.

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