SIGNAL Note 54: The Story of Middle Eastern and North African Jews in the 20th Century

The Middle East has been home to the Jewish People for over 3000 years. The Jews began developing their unique civilization in the Land of Israel around the 11th century, BCE, and they flourished there until they were conquered by the Romans in the first and second centuries of the common era. In 135 CE, the Romans renamed the country “Syria-Palaestina.”

The Jews were twice exiled from their land, which during the course of history has been occupied by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, Muslims, Crusaders, Ottomans and British. The exiled Jews established centers throughout the Middle East and North Africa, beginning in Iraq in 586 BCE. But throughout the millennia, Jews always attempted to return and reestablish communities in their ancient country.

In telling the tale of 20th century Jewry, an important story is often overlooked: the return of the Jews from the Middle East and North Africa to their ancient homeland. There were large, rooted and sometimes thriving Jewish communities in every Arab-Islamic country at the beginning of the 20th century. For instance, during the 1920’s Baghdad was 40 percent Jewish. However, these communities no longer exist.

SIGNAL Note 53: Social-Psychological Considerations for a Community with a Shared Future: Implications for Policy and Practice

China aspires to be a promoter of world peace, contribute to global development, and defend the international order. However, creating a harmonious, peaceful international order is no simple task. As President Xi Jinping explained at the National Education Conference held in Beijing during September of 2018; “Peace is the common aspiration and earnest expectation of all mankind, however, security threats that countries are facing today are increasingly complicated, and the threat of wars still remains.”1 For reconciliation amongst rivals to occur, in any context, requires recognizing them as a legitimate partner in the peace process, and deserving of humane treatment. However, the way children are socialized often confounds this vital precondition, hindering prospects for achieving peaceful coexistence. Policies that ensure that the media and education promote tolerance and acceptance is a critical precondition for realizing world peace.


SIGNAL Note 52: Israel and the Shifting Arab World

In accordance with President Xi Jinping’s vision for well-ordered international relations, China maintains friendly relations with every country in the Middle East, a region at the intersection of Africa, Europe, and Asia. Given its central geostrategic location, the Middle East will necessarily be included in any comprehensive plan to enhance economic connectivity across the three continents. China recognizes the geo-economic importance of this economic corridor 1, one of six of the Belt and Road Initiative. While strong diplomatic ties are important to the success of the BRI, stability in the region of Middle East is also a must. For example, the Maritime Silk Road passes through the Gulf of Aden, where piracy is rampant. The BRI’s proposed high-speed rail projects are intended to pass through Turkish Kurdistan- a politically fragile area due to the presence of Kurdish statist forces in neighboring Syria and Iraq 2. To address such issues and aid in efforts against piracy, China has adopted a number of security measures, including establishing a base in Djibouti.

In addition to the importance of its geographic position, the Middle East holds significant economic importance to China. Close to half of China’s oil imports are from the region 3. Furthermore, Middle East countries present a variety of opportunities for investment.


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